GEOL 125: Earth History

 Study Guide #1 (F05)

What steps are involved in the scientific method?

What is a scientific law? When can you violate a law? State Newton's laws. What factors are involved in the law of gravity? State these by writing an equation.

What are the four fundamental forces? What types of particles experience each of these forces? How do we think these forces are transmitted? Over what range is each effective? What forces are apparent within the nucleus of an atom, and which are most important?

What different forms of energy exist? Give examples. In addition to energy, are there other fundamental properties that must be conserved in any interaction? Give examples.

Why are atoms drawn together to form a chemical bond? If chemical bonds are due to an attractive electromagnetic force between two atoms, what prevents these atoms from moving closer together?

What factor determines the chemical identity of an atom? What is valence? What is the periodic table and why is it useful? How does it relate to the filling of electron shells?

What is electromagnetic radiation? Give some examples. What is the relationship among velocity, frequency and wavelength for a wave? Draw a diagram showing how a light beam is refracted as it passes from a medium in which it has high velocity into a medium in which it has low velocity. What kinds of devices utilize this phenomenon?

What is black body radiation? Draw a graph showing the relationship between the intensity of radiation emitted vs. wavelength. On the same graph, illustrate the spectrum emitted by a second object that has a higher temperature than the first one. What two features of the black body spectrum change as temperature increases?

Terms to know

 velocity  graviton  momentum
 acceleration  photon  angular momentum
 position  gluon  spin
 time  charge
 force  kinetic energy  field particle
 weight  potential energy  energy
 mass  thermal energy (heat)  kg
 Coulomb's Law  electromagnetic energy  km
 hadron  chemical energy  neutron
 lepton  proton  electron
 Kelvin scale  Centigrade scale  Fahrenheit scale
 period  frequency  wavelength
 electromagnetic force  gravity  absorption
 strong force  weak force  ion
 electromagnetic spectrum  gamma ray  x-ray
 ultraviolet  photon  visible light
 infrared  microwave  radio wave
 refraction  emission  
 temperature  Uncertainty Principle