GEOL 125: Earth History Study Guide #1 (F05)

What steps are involved in the scientific method?

What is a scientific law? When can you violate a law? State Newton's laws. What factors are involved in the law of gravity? State these by writing an equation.

What are the four fundamental forces? What types of particles experience each of these forces? How do we think these forces are transmitted? Over what range is each effective? What forces are apparent within the nucleus of an atom, and which are most important?

What different forms of energy exist? Give examples. In addition to energy, are there other fundamental properties that must be conserved in any interaction? Give examples.

Why are atoms drawn together to form a chemical bond? If chemical bonds are due to an attractive electromagnetic force between two atoms, what prevents these atoms from moving closer together?

What factor determines the chemical identity of an atom? What is valence? What is the periodic table and why is it useful? How does it relate to the filling of electron shells?

What is electromagnetic radiation? Give some examples. What is the relationship among velocity, frequency and wavelength for a wave? Draw a diagram showing how a light beam is refracted as it passes from a medium in which it has high velocity into a medium in which it has low velocity. What kinds of devices utilize this phenomenon?

What is black body radiation? Draw a graph showing the relationship between the intensity of radiation emitted vs. wavelength. On the same graph, illustrate the spectrum emitted by a second object that has a higher temperature than the first one. What two features of the black body spectrum change as temperature increases?

Terms to know

 velocity graviton momentum acceleration photon angular momentum position gluon spin time charge force kinetic energy field particle weight potential energy energy mass thermal energy (heat) kg Coulomb's Law electromagnetic energy km hadron chemical energy neutron lepton proton electron Kelvin scale Centigrade scale Fahrenheit scale period frequency wavelength electromagnetic force gravity absorption strong force weak force ion electromagnetic spectrum gamma ray x-ray ultraviolet photon visible light infrared microwave radio wave refraction emission temperature Uncertainty Principle