Study Questions

 Guide #10 (F04)

 GEOL 125: Earth History

 Dr. Hammond

Draw a graph illustrating the rate of bolide impacts through time, from 4.5 by to the present. How was this information determined?

Why did the crust separate from the mantle? What differences exist between the oceanic and continental crust in composition and density?

Draw a graph illustrating the number of genera vs. geologic time, noting any distinct changes. What is a mass extinction? What mechanisms might cause mass extinctions? What happened at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary and what is the evidence?

Several major orogenies have occurred during earth history. Name 2 of these, indicate when they occurred, what land masses were involved, and the mountains that were formed.

How can we determine where continents were in the past? What was the pattern of breakup of Pangea and its effect upon North American geology?

The following features of North America have their origin in a plate tectonic process. Where is each of the following located, when did it form, and how is it related to plate motions: Appalachians, Gulf Coast evaporites, Carboniferous coal deposits, Rocky Mountains, Western Interior Seaway?

How and in what setting do coal deposits form? How and where do oil deposits form? What factors favor deposition of evaporite deposits?

On one set of axes, draw a graph illustrating: (a) the spectrum of energy vs. wavelength for solar radiation received by the earth from the sun, and (b) the spectrum of radiation emitted by the earth to space. What is meant by the 'window in' and 'window out'? What are the 2 most important greenhouse gases?

What factors determine the average global temperature? Explain how atmospheric water vapor may provide a negative feedback that regulates global temperature.

What mechanisms may cause climate to change? On what time scale is each mechanism likely to be important? When have major ice ages occurred? What linkages exist between ice ages and plate tectonics?

What factor drives atmospheric and oceanic circulation? Incoming radiation is most intense at low latitudes. How is heat transferred to the atmosphere from the earth and oceans? How do the ocean and atmosphere re-distribute heat on the earth?

Terms to know

 Western Interior Seaway  super-continent  Appalachians
 ultraviolet radiation  infrared radiation  visible radiation
black body radiation  greenhouse gas  steady state
  albedo bolide Tethys Sea
  Rodinia  Pangea   Gondwanaland
 Wilson cycle  glacial dropstone tillite

Important Orogenies
 Alleghenian orogeny  Taconic orogeny  Grenville orogeny
 Laramide orogeny  Alpine orogeny  Himalayan orogeny