GEOL 125: Earth History

 Study Guide #2 (F05)

Write the following numbers in scientific notation: 500; 623,000; 0.003; 421.

What is the log of each of the following numbers: 10000; 100; 1; 0.001? See Chapter 4 (Section A) or see me if you have trouble with these.

Sketch a picture of an atom. What particles are located in the nucleus? What force holds the nucleus together, and what force is at work to try to break it apart? What force attracts the electrons to the atom?

If an electron in an atom moves from one shell to another, what happens? Why? What would we observe? Why do different elements emit light of different colors when heated in a flame? Is this light of a discrete or widely varying wavelength? Why?

How can we determine the composition of stars? Of planets? What are the densities of the inner and outer planets? Why do they differ?

What types of telescopes exist? What objects can we see in the sky with telescopes?

What types of electromagnetic radiation exist? What wavelengths do astronomers use to make observations?

What properties of stars can be determined from astronomical observations, and what parameters are actually measured to determine these properties?

What methods may be used to estimate stellar distances?

What seems to be the structural organization of the Universe? Draw a diagram illustrating the Milky Way and the position of our sun in this galaxy.

What is binding energy? What is the most stable form of matter? Draw a graph of the relative abundance of elements in the solar system vs. atomic number. What are principal features of this graph? Does this graph reflect any relationship between the binding energy per nucleon and mass number?

Terms to know

 electron cloud  shell number  atomic number
 nucleus  energy level  ionic bond
 valence  molecule  covalent bond
 absorption line  emission line  spectroscopy
 luminosity  meteorite  globular cluster
 brightness  red shift  blue shift
 Doppler shift  nebula  isotropic
 galaxy  local cluster Oort cloud
 comet  planet  spiral arm galaxy
parallax  Cepheid Variable  spectroscopy
 astronomical unit  light year  parsec (second of arc)
 binding energy  mass defect  E=mc2
binding energy per nucleon  nucleon  population I star
  population II star  iron meteorite  stony meteorite