GEOL 125: Earth History

 Study Guide #4 (F05)

Draw the Hubble Plot for galaxy clusters (velocity vs. distance). How is each parameter determined? What is the significance of this plot?

How can the Hubble Plot be used to estimate the age of the Universe? How can the slope of this graph be used to estimate the age of the Universe? What assumptions must be made for this calculation? What would curvature on this plot indicate? Is there evidence for curvature, and in what direction?

What observations do models for the origin of the Universe seek to explain? What basic assumptions are made in developing such models? What observations does the Big Bang theory explain that are not predicted by the Steady State Model?

What is the concept of the inflationary period, and what features of the Universe does it explain? What are the essential steps in the evolution of the early Universe, according to the Big Bang Theory?

Draw a graph illustrating the cosmic microwave background radiation (intensity vs. wavelength). What is the significance of this graph, and how has this graph changed through time? Is this radiation uniform in all directions?

How did galaxies originate?

What is dark matter? Why do we think dark matter exists? Why is it important in determining the fate of the Universe? What is meant by the terms 'open' or 'closed' Universe? What determines if the Universe will expand forever? What determines the 'shape' of the universe? Is there any evidence that the Universe is either open or closed?

Is it possible for time to run backward? Would we know if it did? What is time? Does time have a beginning?

How might the formation of the Universe be compatible with the conservation of energy?

Is it possible for us to perceive other Universes? Why or why not?

Terms to know

red shift  Hubble constant  local cluster
 blue shift  Hubble time big crunch
 critical density  isotropic  singularity
 3°K background radiation  inflationary period  grand unified theory
 steady state  Big Bang  Standard Model
 Cosmological constant  radiation era  matter era