Study Questions

 Guide #8 (F04)

 GEOL 125: Earth History

 Dr. Hammond

What parts of organisms may be preserved? Name one mechanism that may result in fossilization? Does the fossil record provide an accurate indication of the types of organisms that once lived on the earth? What biases might exist? How are fossils useful?

How are organisms classified? What differences exist between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Which came first, and what is the evidence?

What are the principal elements of Darwin's theory for evolution? How did this theory compare with that of Lamarck? What observations led Darwin to propose his theory?

What observations can be used to determine a phylogenetic tree? What is the difference between gradual and punctuated evolution?

What is a gene? How is genetic information coded and used to transmit information to locations in the cell where protein synthesis is carried out? How is genetic information passed from parents to offspring? What is a mutation?

What is a mass extinction? When did the largest mass extinctions occur? Draw a graph illustrating the number of genera vs. geologic time, noting any distinct changes. How do we use fossils to determine some boundaries in the geologic time scale?

How do we define life? What is the sequence of events of events that might have led to the origin of life? What environmental characteristics of the early earth are important to consider in proposing a hypothesis for the origin of life? Indicate some major steps in the tree of life.

What mechanisms might cause mass extinctions? What happened at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary? What is the evidence for this event?

Terms to know

 cast  mold  hard parts
 soft parts   Charles Darwin  kingdom
 William Smith  Georges Cuvier  Biologic succession
 geologic range  trace fossil  catastrophism
 chromosome  gene  Gregor Mendel
 template  RNA  James Watson
 Francis Crick  DNA  stromatolite
 adaptive radiation  ecological niche  Ediacaran Fauna
 prokaryote  eukaryote  metazoan
  cyanobacteria  coelomate   trilobite
  amniotic egg   Stanley Miller   ozone shield
 photosynthesis   fermentation   iridium
  bolide   archaea