ELEMENTS OF OCEANOGRAPHY

 

TOPIC 16 - BIOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE

Overheads:

Phylogenetic Classification of Life
A means of naming all organisms and grouping organisms by degree of similarity - developed by Linnaeus
Largest scale groupings are Kingdoms
Classification sequence - Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
All organisms a unique genus/species name - humans = Homo sapiens

Human Taxonomy
Kingdom - Metazoa
Phylum - Chordata (Subphylum - Vertebrata)
Class - Mammalia
Order -Primates
Family - Hominoidea
Genus - Homo
Species ­ sapiens

Kingdoms
Metaphyta - multicellular plants
Metazoa - multicellular animals
Fungi - multicellular plant-like organisms - no photosynthesis
Protista - single-celled organisms with a distinct nucleus
Monera - single-celled organisms without a nucleus

Important Groups of the Animal Kingdon (Metazoa)
INVERTEBRATES
o Sponges (Phylum Porifera)
o Corals, jelly fish, sea anemones (Phylum Cnidaria)
o Worms (various phyla)
o Sea Moss (Phylum Bryozoa)
o Snails, clams, octopus, squid (Phylum Mollusca)
o Crabs, shrimp, copepods, barnacles, lobsters (Phylum Arthropoda)
o Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea lillies (Phylum Echinodermata)

Important Groups of the Animal Kingdom (Metazoa)
VERTEBRATES
o Fish (Class Osteichthyes)
o Mammals (Class Mammalia)
o Reptiles - turtles, crocodiles, snakes, lizards (Class Reptilia)
o Birds (Class Aves)
o Sharks, rays (Class Chondrichthyes)

Other Important Groups
PLANTS
o Seaweed (macroalgae)
o Sea grass
PROTISTS
o Algae (several phyla)
o Golden-brown algae, diatoms, coccolithophores, silicoflagellates (Phylum Chryophyta)
o Foraminifera, radiolarians, dinoflagellates (Phylum Protozoa)

ENVIRONMENTS
A combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe a living space
Physical Factors - temperature, salinity, light, water depth, substrate
Chemical Factors - nutrients, gases
Biological Factors - ftophic states, food chains or webs

Biological Environments - I
Based on geographic location:
o littoral - intertidal zone
o neritic - subtidal shelf
o pelagic - open ocean beyond neritic one
Based on available light
o euphotic - uppermost sun-lit zone
o photic - any zone that has some light
o aphotic - no light

Biological Environments - II
Based on water depth
o littoral - wave zone
o sublittoral - below wave zone to 200 m
o bathyl 200-2000 m
o abyssal - >2000 m
o hadal - deepest waters within trenches (>6-8000 m)

Biological Definitions - I
Biosphere - global assemblage of many different ecosystems and include all life on Earth
Ecosystem - a community of organisms and their physico-chemical environment
Community - assemblage of organism populations that live together
Population - all individuals of a single species

Biological Definitions - II
Plankton - organisms that float suspended in the water column and have insufficient swimming apparatus to avoid transport by water currents
Nekton - strongly swimming organisms such as fish , marine mammals, or squid
Benthos - organism that live in intimate assocaiton with the ocean bottom

 

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