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Vocabulary for First Midterm Exam



Topic 1 - Introduction

oceanography, geological oceanography, physical oceanography,

chemical oceanography, biological oceanography,


Topic 2 - History of Oceanography

Minoans, Greeks, Phoenicians, Polynesians, stick maps,

coast markers/lighthouses, latitude, longitude, Captain Cook ,HMS Beagle, Meteor,

HMS Challenger,


Topic 3 - Evolution and Structure of the Earth

Solar System, Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth,

Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune,

Pluto, Moon, terrestrial planets, jovian planets, meteor,

nebula, protoplanet, core, mantle, crust,

differentiation, silicate, lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere,

aesthenosphere, magnetic field, bar magnet,


Topic 4 - The Earth's Ocean Basins

wire-line or cable sounding, echo sounding, continental margin,

shelf, slope, rise, submarine canyon, trench,

mid-ocean ridge, fracture zone, seamount, oceanic plateau,


Topic 5 - Plate Tectonics

Alfred Wegener, Pangaea, Laurasia, Gondwana, Plate Tectonics,

Apparent Polar Wander, paleomagnetism, sea floor spreading,

continental drift, plate, convergent, divergent, conservative,

constructive, destructive, subduction, trench, convection,


Topic 6 - The Earth's Atmosphere and Heat Budget

atmosphere, oxygen, nitrogen, ozone, carbon dioxide,

water vapor, troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, convection,

thermosphere, insolation, Coriolis Effect, trades, easterlies,

westerlies, doldrums, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), tropics, Greenhose Effect, heat,

Global Heat Budget, short-wavelength, long-wavelength,

sensible heat, evaporation,


Topic 7 - The Nature and Properties of Water

hydrosphere, hydrologic cycle, polar structure,

condensation, icecap, ground water, gas, evaporation,

liquid, solid, heat capacity, calorie, density,

viscosity, dissolved solids, salinity,

dissolved gases, equilibrium,


Topic 8 - Density and Temperature in the World's Oceans

seawater, mixing, freezing point, water mass, T,

water type, S, sT, thermohaline circulation,


Topic 9 - Ocean Waves and Tides

energy, ripples, refraction, fetch, wavelength,

crest, trough, period, spilling breaker, wave,

plunging breaker, current, littoral drift, rip, tsunami,

tide, gravity,


Topic 10 - Surface Ocean Circulation

western boundary current, eastern boundary current,

equatorial current, equatorial counter-current, upwelling,

Antarctic Circumpolar Current, divergence, convergence, wind-drift,

Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Current, Brazil Current,

Peru/Humbolt Current, Benguela Current, Somali Current,

cold-core ring, warm-core ring, Davidson counter-current,


Topic 11 - Deep Ocean Circulation

thermohaline circulation, water mass, North Atlantic Deep Water,

Antarctic Bottom Water, Mediterranean Intermediate Water,

Antarctic Intermediate Water, Red Sea Intermediate Water,

North Pacific Intermediate Water, global conveyer belt



Vocabulary for Second Midterm Exam



Topic 12 - Weathering and Erosion

mineral, rock, diamond, graphite, polymorph, halite,

Moh's scale, igneous rock, sediment,

sedimentary rock, magma, metamorphic rock, rock cycle, weathering,

erosion, clay, soil


Topic 13 - Marine Sediments and Sedimentation

lithogenous, biogenous, hydrogenous, meteorite, red clay,

cosmogenous, gravel, sand, silt,

runoff, masswasting, traction, shelf, terrace,

trench,submarine canyon, slope, rise,

passive margin, active margin, landslide, mudflow,

turbidity current, ooze, deep sea fan, pelagic


Topic 14 - Coastal Environments and Beach Processes

sea level shelf delta tide beach

sea cliff barrier beach surf zone swash zone berm

pocket beach sea cave arch sea stack tombolo

longshore current bar spit hurricane groin

sea wall levee marsh flood plain estuary

lagoon fjord brackish


Topic 15 - Nutrients and Dissolved Gases in the World's Oceans

nutrient bacteria photosynthesis oxidize reduce

chlorophyll respiration nitrates bloom


Topic 16 - Biological Nomenclature

kingdom phylum class order family

genus species metaphytes metazoans Homo sapiens

protists bacteria invertebrate coral jelly fish

sea anemone sponge algae snail clam

octopus squid crab copepod barnacle

star fish sea urchin shark zooplankton kelp

diatom phytoplankton ray trophic level littoral

neritic pelagic photic euphotic aphotic

bathyl abyssal hadal biosphere ecosystem

environment community population plankton nekton

benthos benthic


Topic 17 - Trophic Relationships, Food Chains, and Webs

producer consumer chemosynthesis plant herbivore

carnivore scavenger omnivore filter feeder browser

deposit feeder predator food chain food web trophic level

biomass heterotroph autotroph


Topic 18 - Marine Biological Ecosystems

pelagic neritic phytoplankton diatoms foraminifera

zooplankton copepods krill schooling whale

sea lion seal sea otter epifauna infauna

sessile benthic cold seeps hydrothermal vents


Topic 19 - Coral Reef Ecosystems

coral reef turbidity hypersaline colonial symbiosis

oysters fringing reef atoll barrier reef guyot

coralline algae


Topic 21 - Paleoclimate/Paleoceanography

climate ENSO Little Ice Age proxy fossil

decadal variability isotope insolation extinction

Milankovich Cycles glacial period interglacial period



Extra Vocabulary for Final Exam



Topic 20 - California Continental Borderland

basin sill anoxic upwelling oil seeps

oxygen minimum laminated sediment pollution

ocean dumping


Topic 22 - Natural Resources

natural resource mineral resource renewable resource

non-renewable resource reserves conditional reserves

fossil fuels oil coal natural gas ores

hydrothermal deposits metals demand remote sensing

energy resources hydrocarbon trap

source reservoir geothermal power nuclear power


Topic 23 - Pollution

hazardous material trace metal fluoride

radioactive waste sewage landfill recycling dumping

primary treatment secondary treatment tertiary treatment

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